Three English rugby union players have received bans ranging from two to 12 years for anti-doping rule violations.
UK Anti-Doping (UKAD) confirmed the all-sport suspensions, which are headed by Kendal Rugby Club-registered player Andrew Quarry.
UKAD said that Quarry has been banned for 12 years on account of three ADRVs, following a criminal conviction in 2013 for conspiracy to supply a controlled Class C drug.
Quarry pleaded guilty at Carlisle Crown Court in July 2013 to dealing anabolic steroids in a gym and was handed a suspended sentence of 12 months' imprisonment.
UKAD added that following the criminal conviction, a Rugby Football Union disciplinary panel banned the former North One West Division player from June 2013 to June 2025 for possession of prohibited substances and methods; use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method; and trafficking or attempted trafficking in any prohibited substance or method.
In a separate case, Brandon Walker, who was registered with Esher Rugby Club, tested positive for the anabolic steroid oxandrolone following an out-of-competition squad test in November last year.
Walker admitted to using the substance, and an RFU disciplinary panel imposed a ban from all sport for four years until December 2019.
And Connor Stapley, who was registered with Henley Rugby Club, tested positive for the presence of metabolites of the anabolic agents methandienone and mesterolone following an out-of-competition squad test last August.
Stapley argued that the positive finding had been caused by a supplement, and, following a review of provided evidence, an RFU disciplinary panel concluded that the violation was not intentional. He is banned until September 2017.
UKAD chief executive Nicole Sapstead said: "It is important to recognise that all three cases are different, must be treated individually and cover a broad range of rule violations.
"The Quarry case is a good result for UKAD and the RFU. Removing a dealer of anabolic steroids from the game -- someone who made a conscious choice to cheat the system and the law -- is a positive result for the sport.
"The case also shows just how important our relationship with law enforcement has become. By working with local police forces and the National Crime Agency, we have been able to remove a dealer from the system -- someone who has absolutely no place in sport."